**distribution**into the different characteristics (marital statuses) will be equal to the other group's (female)

**distribution**. The pie charts below serve as an illustration:

Again, the null hypothesis is that the male pie (and all its wedge sizes) will equal the female pie (and all its wedge sizes). A significant overall chi-square test tells us, of course, to reject Ho, which is to say, reject the notion of identical male and female pies.

A significant overall chi-square test can derive from any one category (wedge) or more being discrepant across males and females. That's where the standardized residuals for the cells can potentially be informative.